'Viking' Lead Trade Weights
Updated: Apr 24
This week, in a repurposing of my Masters Degree dissertation, we have a look at the trade weights used by the Vikings. Often found by metal-detectorists and amateur archaeologists, these are often considered as diagnostic of the presence of Vikings within England. But what were they used for, and what can they tell us about their owners? And why were some embedded with such impressive metalwork?
Explaining Viking Trade Weights
'Viking-Age’ trade weights are a widely attested phenomena in Scandinavia, but equally so in England. Manufactured in a broad range of materials and alloys (Maleszka 2003, 286), they are understood to form part of the system of Gewichtsgeldwirtschaft (bullion economy): a process of exchange of precious metal based on weight, common in Scandinavia (Kruse 1988, 285). In conjunction with a set of pan-scale or balances, repurposed or looted metal (primarily silver) could be exchanged. Figure 1 illustrates an example of such an ensemble excavated from a Scandinavian grave in Kiloran Bay in the Hebrides, presumably representing a tool-kit for trade.
FIGURE 1 - A balance set and lead weights from a Scandinavian grave in Kiloran Bay, Inner Hebrides (National Museums Scotland n.d.).
Weights cast from lead are the most frequently occurring sub-category. Maleszka has suggested material variation is largely a function of geography although this seems unconvincing (Maleszka 2003, 289). Notable concentrations have been found at settlements in Dublin and Woodstown in Ireland (Wallace 2013) and Kaupang in Norway (Pederson 2007). They appear also in funerary contexts, notably at Kiloran Bay (Scotland) and Kilmainham-Islandbridge (Ireland) (Tweddle 1983, 25). In England, substantial corpora of lead weights have been published from Torksey (Lincolnshire) (Hadley and Richards 2016, Balckburn 2002), York (North Yorkshire) (Mainman and Rogers 2000) and Cottam B (North Yorkshire) (Haldenby and Kershaw 2014). It is only the last of these, however, where an in-depth analysis of the weights has been undertaken. They are also found frequently as single finds by field-walkers and metal-detectorists.
The Danelaw and its Economy
England’s corpus of ‘Viking-Age’ lead weights is a result of its period of conquest, and the establishment of the so-called ‘Danelaw’. The Scandinavian settlement of England in the mid-ninth century is a poorly understood and widely controversial topic. Attested most completely by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (hereafter ASC), a loosely defined area of Scandinavian control ebbed and flowed with periods of reconquest and assimilation. The scale of this settlement has proved a serious point of historiographical contention. A broad ‘minimalist’ camp, down-playing the scale and significance of the settlement and championed most substantially by Sawyer (1971) contrasts a ‘maximalist’ camp, stressed more recently by archaeologists (Richards and Haldenby 2018), linguists (Dance 2012) and toponymists (Abrams and Parson 2004). Crucially for England, Kershaw suggests a dual currency under Scandinavian occupation: bullion used alongside coins, and thus the use of lead weights (Kershaw 2017, 174). The chronology is imprecise, but the continued existence of this bullion-weight economy in England, and by extension the need for weights, has been suggested until at least AD930 (Ibid., 185).
What is actually embedded inside the weight varies substantially. Some have glasswork or shells in them, but metalwork tends to be the most frequent. Coins are relatively well represented, too. Decorative metalwork is often embedded within weights - occasionally this comes from Scandinavia, but normally it is from the British Isles - either 'Anglo-Saxon' or Irish. It is remarkable that, when metal is reused, it tends to deliberately centre on a re-used decorative design. This seems very deliberate. Figure 2, below, illustrates one such example.
FIGURE 2 - PAS ID NCL-1C8B61 (https://finds.org.uk/database/images/image/id/26100/recordtype/artefacts#)
Why embed decorative metalwork and deliberate symbols within the weights? It is the central argument of my thesis that these weights can be interpreted in line with broader models of ‘Viking’ loot reuse, and subsequently are to be understood as items with cultural currency.
Viking Loot Re-Use
There are large quantities of ‘Insular’ decorative metalwork found in Scandinavia, especially (although not exclusively) in funerary contexts. This has been broadly noted for some time,
starting with the simple cataloging of ‘Insular’ items by Petersen (1940), Bakka (1965), and indeed in Wamers’ (1983) early work.
How and why are these items in Scandinavia? Ashby reconceptualizes the cause of the ‘Viking-Age’ as a process of ‘status fever’ (Ashby 2015, 93). ‘Insular’ metalwork obtained through raiding, symbolic of ‘sorties into the unknown’ and masculine prowess, acts as a physical expression of prestige (Ibid., 96). Reuse, for example in brooches at Kaupang noted by Wamers, is understood to deliberately draw on this (Wamers 2011, 96-7). Against Barrett’s simple conception of ‘bride-wealth’, it is the symbolic resonance of these items that is relevant (Barrett 2008, 680-1).
In this, Ashby is contextualising a set of long-established theoretical standpoints within a ‘Viking-Age’ context. The first is the notion of object biographies. The literature for this is vast but Gosden and Marshall summarise succinctly: ‘objects become invested with meaning through the social interactions they are caught up in’ (Gosden and Marshall 1999, 170), and these meanings are ‘composed of shifts of context and perspective’ (Ibid., 174). Heen-Pettersen and Murray recent exploration of ‘material citations’ in the ‘Insular’ Melhus shrine in Norway has validated this approach in the ‘Viking’ context, although its strong ecclesiastical focus is less relevant here (Heen-Pettersen and Murray 2018, 72).
Most models understand trade as the primary tool for the acquisition of object biographies (Gosden and Marshall 1999, 174). Instead, Ashby draws on the work of Helms and the idea of geographical dislocation. Helms conceptualises ‘esoteric knowledge’, a tool used by elites to gain and maintain power, to extend beyond the cosmological into the geographical (Helms 1988, 261). In material-cultural terms, items from physically distant and culturally ‘alien’ lands are taken to impart ‘great pride’ (Ibid., 264). Although the frequency of ‘Insular’ metalwork in Scandinavia suggests we are not dealing exclusively with Helms’ kings, ‘Insular’ styles appear to have had an active and widely understood symbolism across the ‘Viking’ world. As an expression of the ‘Other’, they represent ‘a particular resonance or even ‘magic’ relating to [their] exotic provenance’ (Ashby 2015, 96).
Ashby’s focus on raiding has not received universal support. Mikkelsen instead attributes much of the religious ‘Insular’ metalwork in Scandinavia to the process of Christianisation by missionaries (Mikkelsen 2019, 167). This seems less convincing, given the sheer quantity of early metalwork. However, if a raiding source is contested, the items still hold significance for their geographically and conceptually ‘alien’ origin. Either way, this is an understanding of intellectual and imagined geography: a construction of boundaries, the crossing of which gives the items a symbolic significance.
Embedded Weights as Symbols
With embedded lead weights, the case is clearly more complex. It's clear that Anglo-Saxon and Irish designs are consistently and ostentatiously reused, with a focus on identifiable Insular patterns. An economically functional geographic distribution implies trade providing a platform to display the personalisation of these and their biographies.
However, the metalwork is found within the area of its production and has not crossed geographical boundaries. It is not impossible that these weights were produced in Scandinavia and brought over by raiders and later settlers, although their prevalence in the Irish-connected York-Chester-Cumbria zone makes this unlikely. Importance therefore lies in understanding boundaries as imaginary as much as geographical. It seems that the act of owning Anglo-Saxon and Irish items imparted prestige on Scandinavians even when in England. A conceptual boundary between the Scandinavian mainland and the British Isles had been crossed during settlement. This is made clear by the fact that weights with embedded Irish metalwork are found also in Ireland itself: it is not the transposing of items over the Irish Sea that brings cultural relevance, but the re-appropriated into ‘Viking’ hands of clearly ‘alien’ symbols.
Interested in archaeology, and keen to access more information and resources? I have recently released a set of free, online notes for the archaeology of 'Anglo-Saxon' England - this is available here.
Subscribe to the blog using the form below to keep up to date!
A new Deep-Dive article on the so-called 'New Chronology' historiographical conspiracy theory can be found here. It's received some glowingly hateful comments by conspiracy theorists...
NEW PATREON - keen to help me continue to provide free online history resources for everyone? You can support my Patreon here. Please do support if you can - every little helps!
Abrams, L. and Parson, D. (2004) Place-Names and the History of Scandinavia Settlement in England. In J. Hines, A. Lance and M. Redknap (eds.) Land, Sea and Home: 379-430. Leeds, Maney Publishing.
Ashby, S. P. (2015) What Really Caused the Viking Age? The Social Content of Raiding and Exploration. Archaeological Dialogues 22.1: 89-106.
Bakka, E. (1963) Some English Decorated Metal Objects Found in Norwegian Viking Graves. Bergen, Norwegian Universities Press.
Bakka, E. (1965) Some Decorated Anglo-Saxon and Irish Metalwork Found in Norwegian Viking Graves. In A. Small (ed.) The Fourth Viking Congress,York, August 1961: 32-40. Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd.
Barrett, J. H. (2008) What Caused the Viking Age? Antiquity 82.317: 671-85.
Blackburn, M. (2002) Finds from the Anglo-Scandinavian site of Torksey, Lincolnshire. In B. Paszkiewicz (ed.) Moneta Mediævalis. Studia numizmatyczne i historyczne ofiarowane Profesorowi Stanislawowi Suchodolskiemu w 65. rocznice urodzin: 89-101. Warsaw, Wydawnictwo DiG.
Carpenter, A. (ed.) (2014) Art and Architecture of Ireland vol. 1. London, Yale University Press.
Clarke, H. B. (1995) The Vikings in Ireland: A Historian’s Perspective. Archaeology Ireland 9.3: 7-9.
Crawford, H. S. (1923) A Descriptive List of Irish Shrines and Reliquaries Part I. The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 13.1: 74-93.
Dance, R. (2012) English in Contact: Norse. In A. Bergs and L. J. Brinton (eds.) English Historical Linguistics vol. 2: 1724-1737. Boston, De Gruyter.
Dobinson, C. and Denison, S. (1995) Metal Detecting and Archaeology in England. London, English Heritage/ The Council for British Archaeology.
Dobson, R. B. and Donaghey, S. (1984) The History of Clementhorpe Nunnery. London, The Council for British Archaeology.
Downham, C. (2014) Vikings’ Settlements in Ireland Before 1014. In T. Bolton and J. V. Sigurđsson (eds.) Celtic-Norse Relationships in the Irish Sea in the Middle Ages 800-1200: 1-22. Leiden, Brill.
Drinkall, R. and Stevenson, J. (1996) Weighing It All Up. The London Archaeologists 8.1: 2-9.
Edwards, N. (1990) The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland. London, Routledge.
Gosden, C. and Marshall, Y. (1999) The Cultural Biography of Objects. World Archaeology 31.2: 169-78.
Graham-Campbell, J. (1980) Viking Artefacts: A Selected Catalogue. London, British Museum Publications.
Graham-Campbell, J. (1987) From Scandinavia to the Irish Sea: Viking Art Reviewed. In M. Ryan (ed.) Ireland and Insular Art, AD500-1200: 144-52. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.
Graham-Campbell, J. and Batey, C. E. (1998) Vikings in Scotland. An Archaeological Survey. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.
Great Britain. Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. (2016) Treasure Act Annual Report 2016. Available from: https://finds.org.uk/documents/treasurereports/2016.pdf [Accessed: 30th May 2020].
Griffiths, D. (2004) Settlement and Acculturation in the Irish Sea Region. J. Hines, A. Lance and M. Redknap (eds.) Land, Sea and Home: 125-38. Leeds, Maney Publishing.
Gustin, I. (1997) Islam, Merchants, or King? Who Was Behind the Manufacture of Viking Age Weights? In H. Andersson, P. Carelli and L Ersgård (eds.) Visions of the Past: Trends and Traditions in Swedish Medieval Archaeology: 163-78. Stockholm, Stockholm Riksantikvarieämbetet.
Hadley, D. M. (2006) The Vikings in England: Settlement, Society and Culture. Manchester, Manchester University Press.
Hadley, D. M. (2012) The Creation of the Danelaw. In S. Brink and N. S. Price (eds.) The Viking World: 375-8. Abindon, Routledge.
Hadley, D. M. and Richard, J. D. (2016) The Winter Camp of the Viking Great Army, AD 872-3, Torksey, Lincolnshire. The Antiquaries Journal 96.1: 23-67.
Hadley, D. M. and Richards, J. D. (2018) In Search of the Viking Great Army: Beyond the Winter Camps. Medieval Settlement Research 33.1: 1-17.
Haldenby, D. and Kershaw, J. (2014) Viking-Age Lead Weights from Cottam. Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 86.1: 106-23.
Haldenby, D. and Richards, J. D. (2016a) The Viking Great Army and it’s Legacy: Plotting Settlement Shift Using Metal-Detector Finds’, Internet Archaeology 42.1. Available from: https:// doi.org/10.11141/ia.42.3 [Accessed: 16th May 2020].
Haldenby, D. and Richards, J. D. (2016b) The Winter Camp of the Viking Army Camp, AD872-3, Torksey, Lincolnshire’, The Antiquaries Journal 9.1: 23-76.
Hall, R. (1989) The Five Boroughs of the Danelaw: A Review of Present Knowledge. Anglo-Saxon England 18.1: 149-206.
Hall, R. (2012) York. In S. Brink and N. S. Price (eds.) The Viking World: 379-84. Abingdon, Routledge.
Hall, R. (2014) Anglo-Scandinavian Occupation at 16-22 Coppergate: Defining a Townscape. York, The Council for British Archaeology.
Harding, S. (2002) Viking Mersey: Scandinavian Wirral, West Lancashire and Chester. Birkenhead, Countyvise.
Heen-Pettersen, A. M. (2014) Insular Artefacts from Viking-Age Burials from Mid-Norway. A review of Contact Between Trøndelag and Britain and Ireland. Internet Archaeology 38.1. Available from: https://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue38/heenpettersen_index.html [Accessed: 16th May 2020].
Heen-Pettersen, A. M. and Murray, G. (2018) An Insular Reliquary from Melhus: The Significance of Insular Ecclesiastical Material in Early Viking-Age Norway. Medieval Archaeology 62.1: 53-82.
Helms, M. W. (1988) Ulysses’ Sail: An Ethnographic Odyssey of Power, Knowledge, and Geographical Distance. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Hooke, D. (2014) Uses of Waterways in Anglo-Saxon England. In J. Blair (ed.) Waterways and Canal-Building in Anglo-Saxon England: 37-55. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Kershaw, J. (2013) Viking Identities: Scandinavian Jewellery in England. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Kershaw, J. (2016) Scandinavian-Style Metalwork from Southern England: New Light on the ‘First Viking Age’ in Wessex. In R. Lavelle and S. Roffey (eds.) Danes in Wessex: The Scandinavian Impact on Southern England, c.800-c.1100: 87-108. Oxford, Oxbow Books.
Kershaw, J. (2017) An Early Medieval Dual-Currency Economy: Bullion and Coin in the Danelaw. Antiquity 91.355: 173-90.
Kershaw, P. (2000) The Alfred-Guthrum Treaty: Scripting Accommodation and Interaction in Viking Age England. In D. M. Hadley and J. D. Richards (eds.) Cultures in Contact : Scandinavian Settlement in England in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries: 43-64. Turnhout, Brepols.
Kilger, C. (2007) Wholeness and Holiness: Counting, Weight and Valuing Silver in the Early Viking Period. In D. Skre (ed.) Means of Exchange: Dealing with Silver in the Viking Age: 253-325. Aarhus, Aarhus University Press.
Kisch, B. (1959) Weights and Scales in Mediaeval Scandinavia: A New Proof of Arabic Influence of Northern Europe in Viking Times. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 14.4: 160-8.
Kruse, S. E. (1986) The Viking-Age Silver Hoard from Scotby: The Non-Numismatic Element. Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society 86.1: 79-83.
Kruse, S. E. (1988) Ingots and Weight Units in Viking Age Silver Hoards. World Archaeology 20.2: 285-301.
Kruse, S. E. (1992) Late Saxon Balances and Weights from England. Medieval Archaeology 36.1: 67-95.
Langdon, J. Inland Water Transport in Medieval England. Journal of Historical Geography 19.1: 1-11.
Lemonnier, P. (2012) Mundane Objects: Materiality and Non-Verbal Communication. Walnut Creek, Left Coast Press.
Mainman, A. J. and Rogers, N. S. H. (2000) Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Anglo-Scandinavian York. York, The Council for British Archaeology.
Malszka, M. (2003) A Viking Age Weight from Clear, Westray, Orkney. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 133.1: 283-91.
Margary, I. D. (1955) Roman Roads in Britain. London, Pheonix House.
McCloskey, L, E. (2018) Exploring Meditatio and Memoria in Ireland through the Book of Durrow. American Society of Irish Medieval Studies 11.1: 32-59.
McCormick, F. (2007) The Horse in Early Ireland. Anthropozoologia 42.1: 85-104.
Moulden, J. and Tweddle, D. (1986) Anglo-Scandinavian Settlement South West of the Ouse. London, The Council for British Archaeology.
Mikkelsen, E. (2019) Looting or Missioning: Insular and Continental Sacred Objects in Viking Age Contexts in Norway. Oxford, Oxbow Books.
Mills, N. (2001) Saxon and Viking Artefacts. Witham, Greenlight.
Murray, P. and Murray L. (1996) The Oxford Companion to Christian Art and Architecture. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
National Museums Scotland (n.d.) 000-000-099-686-C [online]. Available from: https://nms.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-000-099-686-C [Accessed: 23rd May 2020].
O’Dell, A. C. et al. (1959) The St. Ninian’s Isle Silver Hoard. Antiquity 33.1: 241-68.
Ó Floinn, R. (1989) A Fragmentary House-Shaped Shrine from Clonard, Co. Meath. The Journal of Irish Archaeology 5.1: 49-55.
O’Sullivan, A., McCormick, F., Kerr, T. R. and Harney, L. (2014) Early Medieval Ireland AD400-1000: The Evidence from Archaeological Excavations. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.
Pedersen, U. (2007) Weights and Balances. In D. Skre (ed.) Means of Exchange: Dealing with Silver in the Viking Age: 119-95. Aarhus, Aarhus UIniversity Press.
Perry, G. (2016) Pottery Production in Anglo-Scandinavian Torksey (Lincolnshire): Reconstructing and Contextualising the Chaîne opératoire. Medieval Archaeology 60.1 2016: 72-114,
Philpott, R. A. (2010) The Early Medieval Period. In R. A. Philpott and M. H. Adams Irby, Wirral: Excavations on a Late Prehistoric, Romano-British and Medieval Site, 1987-96: 209-22. Liverpool, National Museums Liverpool.
Powell-Smith, A. (2011a) Open Domesday Map: England in 1086 [online]. Available from: https://opendomesday.org/map/ [Accessed: 19th May 2020].
Powell-Smith, A. (2011b) Open Domesday - Fornetorp [online]. Available from: https://opendomesday.org/place/SE6367/fornetorp/ [Accessed: 19th May 2020].
Radners, J. N. (ed.) (1978) The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. Dublin, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Redknap, M. (2007) Crossing Boundaries - Stylistic Diversity and External Contacts in Early Medieval Wales and the March: Reflections on Metalwork and Sculpture. In P. Sims-Williams and G. D. Williams Crossing Boundaries: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Celtic Studies, 24-30 August 2003, University of Wales, Aberystwyth: 23-86. Aberystwyth, Department of Welsh, University of Wales.
Robbins, K. (2014) Portable Antinquities Scheme: A Guide for Researchers. Available from: https://finds.org.uk/documents/guideforresearchers.pdf [Accessed: 16th May 2020].
Roman Roads Research Association (2018) The Gazetter [online]. Available from: http://roadsofromanbritain.org/gazetteer.html [Accessed 3rd June 2020].
Richards, J. D. (2012) Viking Settlement in England. In S. Brink and N. S. Price (eds.) The Viking World:.368-74. Abingdon, Routledge.
Richards, J. D. and Haldenby, D. (2018) The Scale and Impact of Viking Settlement in Northumbria. Medieval Archaeology 62.2: 322-50.
Richards, J. D. et al. (2013) Cottam, Cowlam and Environs: An Anglo-Saxon Estate on the Yorkshire Wolds. Archaeological Journal 170.1: 201-71.
Ryan, M. (1985) Early Irish Communion Vessels. Dublin, Country House and the National Museum of Ireland.
Ryan, M. (1987) Some Aspects of Sequence and Style in the Metalwork of Eighth- and Ninth-Century Ireland. In M. Ryan (ed.) Ireland and Insular Art, AD500-1200: 66-74. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.
Ryan, M. (1991) Early Medieval Art. In M. Ryan (ed.) The Illustrated Archaeology of Ireland. Dublin, Country House.
Ryan, M. (1994) Ten Years of Early Irish Metalwork. Irish Arts Review Yearbook 10.1: 153-6.
Ryan, M. (1996) Insular Art: Metalwork. In J. Turner (ed.), The Dictionary of Art vol. 15: 871-3.
Sawyer, P. H. (1971) The Age of the Vikings. London, Edward Arnold.
Schultzén, J. (2009) Devaluing the Mitqal: Inherent Trading Fees in the Metrics of Birka. MSc thesis, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
Sheehan, J. (2004) Social and Economic Integration in Viking-Age Ireland: The Evidence of the Hoards. In J. Hines, A. Lane and M. Redknap (eds.) Land, Sea and Home: 177-88. Leeds, Maney Publishing.
Sheehan, J. (2013) Viking Raiding, Gift-Exchange and Insular Metalwork in Norway. In A. J. Reynolds (ed.) Early Medieval Art and Archaeology in the Northern World: Studies in Honour of James Graham-Campbell: 809-23. Leiden, Brill.
Smith, R. A. (1911) Anglo-Saxon Remains. In W. Page (ed.) The Victoria History of the County of Suffolk vol. 1: 325-6. London, Archibald Constable.
Sperber, E. (1989) The Weights Found at the Viking Age Site of Paviken, a Metrological Study. Fornvännen 84.1: 129-34.
Sperber, E. (1991) Balances and Weights in Viking Age Sweden. Laborativ Arkeologi 5.1: 163-70.
Sperberb, E. (1999) Bronze Coated Cubo-Octahedral Weights with an Iron Core from Viking Age Sweden. Laborativ Arkeologi 12.1: 7-9.
Stalley, R. 1996) Insular Art: Introduction. In J. Turner (ed.) The Dictionary of Art vol. 15: 870-1. London, MacMillan.
Swanton, M. (ed. and tr.) (2000) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. London, Pheonix Press.
The Dock Museum (n.d.) Vikings [online]. Available from: http://www.dockmuseum.org.uk/Vikings [Accessed: 31st May 2020].
The Portable Antiquities Scheme (n.d.) Database [online]. Available from: https://finds.org.uk/database [Accessed: 8th June 2020].
Thomas, G. (2000) A Survey of Late Anglo-Saxon and Viking-Age Strap-Ends from Britain. PhD thesis, University of London, London.
Thomas, G. (2006) Reflections on a ‘Ninth-Century’ Northumbrian Metalworking Tradition: A Silver Hoard from Poppleton, North Yorkshire. Medieval Archaeology 50.1: 143-64.
Tweddle, D. (1983) The Weight of the Evidence. Interim: Archaeology in York 9.2: 24-5.
Tweddle, D., Moulden, J. and Logan, E. (1999) Anglian York: A Survey of the Evidence. York, The Council of British Archaeology.
Viking Archaeology (n.d.) Places-Names in the Danelaw [online]. Available from: http://viking.archeurope.info/index.php?page=place-names-in-the-danelaw [Accessed: 31st May 2020].
Wallace, P. F. (2013) Weights and Weight Systems in Viking Age Ireland. In A. Reynolds and L. E. Webster (eds.) Early Medieval Art and Archaeology in the Northern World: Studies in Honour of James Graham-Campbell: 301-16. Leiden, Brill.
Wamers, E. (1983) Some ecclesiastical and Secular Metalwork Found in Norwegian Viking Graves. Peritia 2.1: 277-306.
Wamers, E. (1987) Egg-and-Dart Derivatives in Insular Art. In M. Ryan (ed.) Ireland and Insular Art, AD500-1200: 96-104. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.
Wamers, E. (1998) Insular Finds in Viking Age Scandinavia and the State Formation of Norway. In H. B Clarke, M. N. Mhaonaigh and R. Ó’Floinn (eds.) Ireland and Scandinavia in the Early Viking Age: 37-73. Dublin, Four Courts.
Wamers, E. (2011) Continental and Insular Metalwork. In D. Skre (ed.) Things from the Town: Artefacts and Inhabitants in Viking-Age Kaupang: 65-97. Oslo, Aarhus University Press.
Wastling, L. M. (2009) Lead and Lead Alloy Mensuration Weights. In D. H. Evans and C. Loveluck (eds.) Life and Economy at Early Medieval Flixborough, c.600-1000: The Artefact Evidence: 422-4. Oxford, Oxbow Books.
Webster, L. (2011) Style: Influences, Chronology and Meaning. In D. A. Hinton, S. Crawford and H. Hamerow (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Archaeology: 460-502. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Werner, M. (1984) Insular Art: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston, G. K. Hall.
Wilson, D. M. (2012) The Isle of Man. In S. Brink and N. S. Price (eds.) The Viking World: 385-90. Abingdon, Routledge.
Youngs, S. (ed.) (1990) The Work of Angels’: Masterpieces of Celtic Metalwork, 6th-9th Centuries AD. London, British Museum Publications.
Youngs, S. (2007) Insular Metalwork fro Flixborough, Lincolnshire. Medieval Archaeology 45.1: 210-20